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First Time OpenWrt

·760 words·4 mins

I have been using OpnSense for the last 4(?) years, mostly satisfied with it.

Inspired by HN article for fixing the NanoPi R4S issue and upgrading the kernel, I search for this device on Taobao, and found R5S is available. But wait, there is R6S!? Just 2 days after release, even lucky that find the company FriendlyELEC in my city(Guangzhou), ordered and received it. Let’s power on.

It installed OpenWrt by default, not the official one but a fork named FriendlyWrt, I can start it and connect it to monitoring and login to it, but all the network ports not working, as advised by the seller, I need to re-install the system. Installed the latest version with docker, powered it on again, networks working fine.

Here are some notes during I setup and learning in the first 3 days.

DDNS of CloudFlare

  • Lookup Hostname: example.tld
  • IP version: IPv4
  • DDNS Service:
  • Domain: *.myhome.example.tld
  • Username: Bearer
  • Password: seCreTtok3n

Since I am using wildcard domain names, the script can’t handle it and caused can’t find zone issue, the simple solution is hard-code your zone_id`` in the file(/usr/lib/ddns/`)

# ...
# ...

Reverse Proxy with Nginx

When using OpnSense I was using haproxy, and the setup of service is very cumbersome, need to manually click to create a lot of services and mapping, I am not clever enough to figure out how to manage by config files, because the config files of haproxy is too complicated to me and error-prone when doing it manually.

When researching reverse proxy on OpenWrt, I see people recommended nginx and finally figured out how to set up with config files, the easy to understand, and backup config files.

  1. Install luci-ssl-nginx, and important nginx-all-module otherwise some feature missing will cause you a headache, for me it was realip module which caused the wss proxy fails.
  2. Create TLS cert and key for your public service and save to e.g. /etc/certs/myhome.example.tld, I am using cerbot.
  3. We will listen our services at port 10443 since most ISPs blocked port 443. Create a port forwarding for the port 10443 in Network -> Firewall -> Port Forwards for the OpenWrt instance.
  4. Add services in /etc/config/nginx:
 config server 'codeserver'
      list listen '10443 ssl'
      option server_name 'code.myhome.example.tld'
      list include 'conf.d/code-server.loc'
      option ssl_certificate '/etc/certs/myhome.example.tld/cert.pem'
      option ssl_certificate_key '/etc/certs/myhome.example.tld/privkey.pem'
      option access_log 'off; # logd openwrt'
  1. Create /etc/nginx/conf.d/code-server.loc
location / {
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
    proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";


Error: [emerg] 4775#0: could not build server_names_hash, you should increase server_names_hash_bucket_size: 32

Add the below config in /etc/nginx/conf.d/custom.conf file, which will be inserted into http section of generated nginx conf file.

server_names_hash_bucket_size  64;

Proxy on OpenWrt

There is a lot of enthusiasm in China for using OpenWrt/LEDE, especially the VPN/Proxy features, but I failed to manage to set up passwall on my device, and seems it’s not possible to set up a transparent proxy for HTTPS traffic, so I just need to run a hysteria proxy client on the router and open port 3128 so any device can use it by explicitly set the https_proxy environment variable.

But setup a service with init.d on OpenWrt is not straight(to me?), so I am going to use the docker service:

docker run -dt --network=host --name hysteria \
    -v /etc/hysteria/config.json:/etc/hysteria.json \
    tobyxdd/hysteria:v1.2.2 -c /etc/hysteria.json


Some lists can’t be downloaded in China due to GFW, hence need proxy.

In Additional Settings, choose curl as Download Utility, input Parameter as -x localhost:3128 --connect-timeout 20 --silent --show-error --location -o.

iperf3 benchmark

  1. Download to the client, ((my) server(OpenWrt) already has it).
  2. Start it on server: iperf3 -s
  3. Run on the client:
$ iperf3 -t 60 -c -i 10
Connecting to host, port 5201
[  4] local port 44904 connected to port 5201
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  2.74 GBytes  2.35 Gbits/sec    0   12.2 MBytes       
[  4]  10.00-20.00  sec  2.74 GBytes  2.35 Gbits/sec   33   12.2 MBytes       
[  4]  20.00-30.00  sec  2.74 GBytes  2.35 Gbits/sec    0   12.2 MBytes       
[  4]  30.00-40.00  sec  2.73 GBytes  2.35 Gbits/sec    0   12.3 MBytes       
[  4]  40.00-50.00  sec  2.73 GBytes  2.35 Gbits/sec    0   12.3 MBytes       
[  4]  50.00-60.00  sec  2.73 GBytes  2.35 Gbits/sec    0   12.3 MBytes       
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec  16.4 GBytes  2.35 Gbits/sec   33             sender
[  4]   0.00-60.00  sec  16.4 GBytes  2.35 Gbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.